What is Mutton Rogan Josh?
Rogan Josh is an aromatic traditional Kashmiri dish that we cook with lamb meat and dry red chilies. Authentic Kashmiri mutton Rogan josh is a deep red spicy lamb or mutton dish of Persian origin. Mughals brought this dish to Kashmir. The dish has thin red color gravy and a thick layer of clarified butter on top. This dish goes very well with steamed rice or any Indian bread. It tastes delicious either way.
Why is Rogan Josh called?
Rogan Josh is a combination of two Persian words. Rogan means oil whereas the word Josh means intense passion. It has more figurative use meaning the mutton or lamb meat cooked under intense heat.
The characteristic red color of Rogan Josh comes from the utilization of a liberal amount of Kashmiri red chili powder and Ratan Jot which is a root of a plant having a deep red color.
How to cook authentic Kashmiri mutton Rogan Josh?
In an authentic Kashmiri mutton rogan josh, the red color gravy is achieved by the use of Kashmiri red chili powder and Ratan Jot. Ratan Jot or alkanna is good for diarrhea and stomach ulcers but it has serious side effects too.
Traditionally Ratan Jot was added to this spicy red chili powder-filled delicious Kashmiri mutton rogan josh recipe, to prevent stomach ulcers and diarrhea.
There are two different versions of this dish. Kashmiri Muslims prepare it with onion and garlic while the Kashmiri Pandits only use yogurt to make it.
Why Kashmiri Pandit’s avoid onion and garlic?
Onion and garlic are considered to be Tamasic and Rajasic by nature. Meaning they are pungent foods that increase heat, and bile in the body. The Hindus(especially Brahmins), who follow the food pattern of Ayurveda avoid eating garlic and onion. Because of their religious beliefs and devotion to ancient Hindu culture.
I have made the Kashmiri Pandit’s version today without onion and garlic and it turned out delicious. I have also avoided the use of Ratan Jot in this recipe. It doesn’t change the taste of the dish dramatically so it could be optional to use it. But you can easily convert this Kashmiri Pandit’s version to Kashmiri Muslim style with onion and garlic.
How to make Mutton Rogan Josh Kashmiri Muslim style with onion and garlic?
To make Mutton Rogan Josh recipe with onion and garlic like Kashmiri Muslims, add sliced 1 cup onion and 10-12 crushed cloves of garlic in the heavy bottom pan after adding the dry red chilies. Fry them until they turn golden brown. Then add mutton and follow the recipe as mentioned below.
Mutton Rogan Josh Recipe
- 1/2 kilogram mutton (बकरे का मांस) preferable meat from lamb's leg
- 4 tablespoon clarified butter (घी)
- 2 pieces black cardamom (बड़ी इलायची)
- 1/2 teaspoon saffron (केसर) dissolved in water
- 1 teaspoon garam masala powder (गरम मसाला पाउडर)
- 2 tablespoon whisked curd (फेटा हुआ दही)
- salt to taste (नमक स्वाद अनुसार)
For Fresh Garam Masala
- 1 piece Indian bay leaf (तेज पत्ता)
- 2 -3 pieces of green cardamom (छोटी इलायची)
- 1 petal mace (जावित्री)
- 1/2 teaspoon coriander seeds (साबुत धनिया)
- 1 inch of cinnamon stick (दालचीनी)
- 1/2 tablespoon cumin seeds (जीरा)
- muslin cloth (मलमल का कपड़ा) as required
For Spice Mix
- 1 tablespoon Kashmiri red chili powder (कश्मीरी लाल मिर्च पाउडर)
- 1/2 teaspoon dry ginger powder (सोंठ पाउडर)
- 1 tablespoon fennel seeds powder (सौंफ का पाउडर)
- 1 teaspoon asafoetida (हींग)
- 1/2 teaspoon red chili powder (लाल मिर्च पाउडर) or as per taste
How to prepare Fresh Garam Masala for Mutton Rogan Josh
- On a muslin cloth put 1 bay leaf, 2-3 whole green cardamom, 1 petal of mace, half teaspoon coriander seed, half teaspoon cumin seeds, 1-inch cinnamon stick and bundle it into a bale and keep aside.
How to Prepare Spice Mix For Mutton Rogan Josh
- In a small bowl add asafoetida powder, dry ginger powder, fennel seeds powder, Kashmiri red chili powder, red chili powder with 3 tablespoons of water. Mix it into the water and keep aside.
How to Make Kashmiri Mutton Rogan Josh
- Take a heavy bottom pan and pour the 4 tablespoons clarified butter in it and heat it on medium-high flame. Then put the black cardamom into it and roast it for 1-2 minutes.
- Now put the mutton pieces in clarified butter and fry it till outer coating of meat turns brown in color. Occasionally stir and turn the mutton pieces to cook it from all the sides till brown in medium-high flame.
- When the outer coat of mutton pieces got caramelized and brown from all the sides add the watery spice mix to it. Cook it for a minute or two.
- Now add half teaspoon of saffron, salt to taste and pour 2 cups of water to it.
- Put the whole spice bundled bale into it. Cover and cook it on high flame for 5 minutes and let the mutton simmer. After 5 minutes turn the flame to low and let the mutton cook with spices for 40 minutes on low heat.
- After 45 minutes open the lid. You will find the gravy has turned into Rogan (red), thick and oily. Now add 1 teaspoon of garam masala powder along with 2 tablespoons of whisked curd. Mix it well and again cook covered for another 30 minutes on low flame.
- After 30 minutes open the lid and remove the spice bundled bale from the gravy. Your delicious Mutton Rogan Josh is ready to serve.
- Serve hot with rice or Kashmiri Naan.
Why Ratan Jot has been avoided by me?
Ratan jot or Alkanna tinctoria is the root of alkanet, a herb in the borage family, traditionally used in Indian food under the name Ratan Jot. This root produces a fine red coloring material. This is also in use as a dye in the Mediterranean region since antiquity.
The root as a dyestuff is soluble in alcohol, ether, and the oils, but is insoluble in water. Thus it is in use to give color to wines and alcoholic tinctures, to vegetable oils. And even for lipstick and other cosmetics and varnishes.
The Australian government approves alkanet for use as a food coloring. But in the European Union, it is not.
Alkanna contains harmful chemicals called Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic, meaning damaging to the liver. PAs might also cause cancer and birth defects. Thus it is recommended to ignore it by pregnant and breastfeeding women. Thus, observing these recommendations from WebMD I avoided the use of Ratan Jot in this recipe.
Find out how we have avoided the use of Ratan Jot, still maintaining the authentic flavor in the below recipes too.
Looking forward to the advantages and disadvantages of Ratan Jot I have left it altogether for you to decide the use of Ratan Jot in this dish. Though ignoring Ratan Jot does not change the taste of this recipe much but if you want to use Ratan Jot follow the below process.
How to cook authentic Kashmiri Lamb Rogan Josh recipe with Ratan Jot?
If using Ratan jot, heat 2 tablespoon of ghee and once the ghee is sufficiently hot, switch off the flame and a small piece of rattan jot in the ghee. Let the color of the rattan jot steep in the ghee for a few minutes. Discard rattan jot and pour the ghee in the ready curry.
Have you enjoyed this dish?
Please share your experience with this dish in the comment section below. I will love to hear from you. If you enjoyed this dish and want to cook this dish regularly then here is the spice mix you can keep ready for next time.
How to make Rogan Josh spice mix?
To make Rogan Josh spice mix, 2 tablespoons Kashmiri red chili powder, 1 teaspoon dry ginger powder, 2 tablespoon fennel seeds powder, 2 teaspoon asafoetida powder and 1 teaspoon red chili powder and mix well. Store this mix in a glass jar and use as required.